Holiday reading?

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If you’re packing for holiday and still in the process of deciding what to take for your holiday reading, please consider The Philosopher’s Beach Book. It’s an easy read, ideal for those new to philosophy.

The Philosopher’s Beach Book invites you to relax and think; to wiggle your toes in the sand and reflect on the meaning of life. Each of its thirty five short chapters reflects on a question; most existential, some more general. Some are related to holidays; why we take them and what we take on them. Others look at what we take for granted and suggest that we look again.

It’s light enough for a holiday read; substantial enough to get you thinking!

Some of the questions this book explores…

Can a heap of sand prevent baldness? / Did you bring your laptop? / Are you predictable? / Does morality add up? / Should you regret being prudent? / Is the universe meaningless? / Would you take a holiday from paradise?  / Is moral relativism absolute? / Would you still bet on God? / Were you ever ‘at home’? / Successful? Ambitious? / Is fairness possible? / Is any theory as good as any other? / Do you believe your own website? / Naked thoughts? / What part does luck play in your life?

For more information and a link to ‘look inside’ and see samples  click here .

 

Norcia – recovering from the quake

Norcia 1The beautiful city of Norcia, in the mountains in the east of Umbria, suffered terribly in the earthquake in 2016, and remains scarred.  In St Benedict’s Square, what remains of the his Basilica is held up by scaffolding, and next to it the beautiful tower of the town hall is dangerously cracked and bound together. And everywhere, modern buildings, too, lie in ruins behind wire and ‘no-entry’ signs.

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Yet Norcia wants to be again ‘open for business’ to tourists, and I would recommend a visit to that lovely, but devastated part of Italy. It’s charm remains, even through the scars. And outside the city the fields and mountains are as beautiful as ever…

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Ravenna’s digital glory

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Today, the quest for the perfect digital image generally requires cramming a huge number of very small pixels onto a camera sensor. By and large, the older the image, the larger the pixels and the more crude the image.  Well, now I’ve seen what must be the absolute ultimate in religious digital imagery, and it leaves me gobsmacked – the mosaics at Ravenna.  Pixels don’t come larger than this! No digital photograph can start to do justice to the overwhelming aesthetic (Did I mean religious?) experience of encountering the wealth of digital images that cover the walls of the basilica here. Pixels individually placed to form the most exquisite, colourful and uplifting visual symbolism.

Choices! (Political and otherwise)

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If we’re lucky enough, life is full of options and choices, like escalators taking us to different levels of a department store. Directions, offerings, promises – we look down and almost get vertigo. We may look at other people’s choices with incredulity or envy.  How on earth can they want that, vote for that?

To those for whom poverty or hunger mean that they have no choices, our freedoms must seem like heaven. Yet I sense that it is generally the choices we are offered that cause us to struggle with life and its meaning – do I REALLY want to do this or that?  So much of what concerns us is, from a global perspective, merely the froth on a wave – to use one of Buddha’s analogies.  Where am I going in life? Where are we all going? These questions, along with a host of ready-made, vote-for-me answers, proliferate when it comes to election time. For the first time, facing the general election on June 8th, I am really in despair. It’s not that the issues before us are not important; indeed, this election could decide the future for rather more than the usual five years of a government. Rather, what concerns me is the gross mismatch between ideals and deliverables. Politics requires a subtle blending of visionary principles and pragmatic solutions. Without the one we have no direction, without the other, no means to travel.

To put it crudely, we are offered the choice between an approach that says, in effect, ‘Give me power and I will deliver!’ but without any clear sense of what it is that will be delivered or deliverable. Getting the ‘best deal for Britain’ is meaningless without a clear sense of what constitutes ‘best’. While, at the other extreme, I see a political vision of what could constitute the good life – with policies that might well command majority support – that may indeed be wonderful, and certainly fires the orator with enthusiasm. But can it be delivered? Is it realistic? If not, is all that is promised not doomed to heroic failure?

I feel, sometimes, that I am at the top of that set of escalators, looking down on people moving in very different directions with equal enthusiasm, and feel a kind of nausea. The secret of Nietzsche’s happiness may have been a straight line and a goal. The secret of mine, at the moment, is simply knowing how we get out of what I perceive to be our present mess.

But, more generally, I have a hunch that, as we pass through life, we construct multi-dimensional maps of our environment, marked with point of significance and value for us. Looking into the map of our life is rather like looking down into this stairwell of escalators. We see, passing one way and another, different aspects of life; some pulling one way, some another.  And our task, not just as we come to vote, but as we struggle to make sense of life, is to get to appreciate and understand the map and its coordinates. Values and visions; plenty of them on parade. For now, however, they tend to be all part of the bombardment by the claims and boasts of our ‘post-truth’ world. Can I trust any of them? Are they workable? And in whose interests?

For a moment, the political world appears to be free from the usual human confusions of existential doubt. All is mad certainty. But for me, it’s more mad than certain.

Getting RE Straight

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No, the ‘RE’ has not been Photoshopped! And, no, I was not trespassing on the railway line, but was on a level crossing when I noticed that Religious Education seemed to feature on the track of this little branch line in Friesland, in the north of the Netherlands. I was reasonably safe, since this line gets so few trains that I hardly needed to listen out for a rumbling that might have made this my last photograph.

But it set me thinking, both about Religious Education and about straight lines.

Nietzsche commented that his happiness was to be found in a straight line and a goal, and if there’s anything this mad world needs it’s a sense of direction and some sort of defined goal. Whether in political or personal life, there is surely a limit to the amount of ‘muddling through’ that can give satisfaction, and my heartfelt sympathy goes out to the vox pop‘d Brenda, whose ‘Oh, for God’s sake, not again!’ comment, on being told that there was to be another election, went viral. Whatever side of whichever debate you’re on, it is hard to believe that careful, reflective thought or precise argument grounds most political, social or economic decisions these days.  Oh for a straight line and a goal in this world of post-truth, electoral statistics and the orchestrated events that attempt to fool us into thinking that politicians genuinely meet the public in this media-dominated world!

Getting a grip on direction, purpose and values seems to be the very essence of education, once it get’s beyond the utilitarian spoon-feeding of undigested facts that our examination system seems to encourage. Religious Education, I believe, has a valid part to play in this, because Religious Education, at its best, not only gives factual information about the lifestyles and belief systems of the world religions – itself absolutely necessary to promote a mature and sensitive approach to life and empathy with people of different cultures – but it should also provide an opportunity for students to learn to questions their own beliefs and assumptions, ask fundamental questions about life, and grapple with issues of meaning, value and direction.

Of course, that is the role for Philosophy too – and it would be offered more widely, were it not for the way in which, in the UK, Religious Education stands in the place that Philosophy occupies in most European education systems. (Of course, a majority of students, being wise to what they need and intuitively aware of the anachronistic nature of RE’s position within the curriculum, have tended to opt for Philosophy of Religion and Ethics at A level, thereby effectively smuggling Philosophy into the curriculum under the guise of RE.) A key difference between Religious Education and Philosophy, at this level, is that Religious Education, properly presented, seeks to earth philosophical reflection in the intuitive, the cultural and the personal – things that give religions their on-going attractiveness – whereas philosophy presents a more exclusively intellectual and enquiring approach to life, although one that is mercifully freed from dogma – except, perhaps, the Enlightenment dogma of humankind’s motivation being principally guided by intellect.

The best philosophy includes the all-too-human dimensions, of course,  and when it does so, it gets beyond the superficial, Western distinction between philosophy and religion. They are both about finding direction and getting life straight, and both come with a legacy that can be difficult to reconcile with our present experience and assumptions about life!

For decades now, as a secular thinker, I’ve had difficulty coming to terms with Religious Education.  At its best, it can indeed stimulate the sort of questioning and reflection about life that is at the very heart of education. At its less-than-best it can easily slip into the role of purveying traditional religious answers to questions not yet asked, at at its worst, offering dogma and supernatural delusions in place of that blend of intuition and reason that characterises the best religious thinking.

But of one thing I am convinced. Education is desperately in need of a solid grounding in the exploration of values, whether they come through Religious Education or Philosophy. Education is not the same thing as training, and it should never be evaluated in terms of economic benefit or a competitive accumulation of qualifications. Getting it straight is at the heart of what it’s about – and we’ve never been more in need of it!

 

 

 

 

Matthieu Ricard’s thought for the week

I always appreciate Matthieu Ricard’s ‘thought for the week’, and today’s offering seems particularly valuable as a starting point for reflection. From the teachings of the Dalai Lama, it touches the essence of what spirituality and religion should be about – not improbable beliefs, but personal transformation.  It also touches on the issue of neuroplasticity, and the mistake of assuming that the mind can be ‘reduced’ to a determinist view of neural activity. Here it is…

‘The mind is malleable: it is capable of change. So we need to learn to see how we can transform it. We need to identify the ways to achieve that transformation and put them into action. Samsara, the circle of existences, and nirvana, the state beyond it, are not like geographical locations far from one another. They are two states of mind. Samsara is a deviation from knowledge, a distorted vision of reality that makes the mind the slave of negative emotions, while nirvana is a state of inner freedom, free of any conceptual and emotional obstacles.

Oral Teachings given in Schvenedingen Germany, 1998.

FOURTEENTH DALAI LAMA, TENZIN GYATSO (B. 1936)

Beyond the grave?

What do you make of this?

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I promise you this photograph owes nothing to Photoshop. This tree, over many years, has grown quite naturally out of the grave. For some it may be an appropriate Easter image of hope, but you don’t need to be particularly religious to ponder its significance.

We may hope and believe (rightly so, since we are all unique) that our lives are somehow special, worthy of a permanent memorial – or perhaps simply that we may aspire to live worthy of a decent funeral oration when our time comes. We may also look beyond death as a natural phenomenon (however unnatural or tragic its circumstances in so many cases) and recognise that nature will inevitably take over and insist that we become nourishment for the next generations of living things. We are all swept along in a natural process of life and death; a stream that was flowing long before our individual consciousness came to birth, and that will continue to flow long after all whom we know have long vanished from the earth. If beyond death is the same as before birth, we have nothing to fear. Or, as Wittgenstein observed, death is not an event in life.

It may also remind us to let go of our craving for the past or for permanence, since neither is possible, and focus on the present moment – savouring the beauty of transient life, and celebrating the fleeting now.

Teilhard de Chardin argued that humankind would never move in a direction it knew to be blocked, but would be paralysed at the thought that its efforts would not win through to some eternal future goal.  I’m not persuaded of that. We find it all too easy to go blindly down alleys that lead nowhere – as individuals, or humankind as a whole. But do we do so knowingly? Or do we secretly believe that our particular dreams will somehow yield a permanent result?  Teilhard, along with most western religious thinkers, sought an overall structure of meaning and purpose (generally described in terms of ‘God’, for him a evolution leading to Omega) to make sense of life, believing in that structure being a prerequisite of salvation from meaningless existence.  At the other end of the scale, the Buddhist tradition requires the radical letting go, accepting and celebrating the present moment.  Personally, I find the latter more satisfying and realistic. It does not preclude other beliefs, but renders them of secondary importance to the immediate engagement with this ever-changing life.

I guess, for the more cynical (or realistic), the image also suggests that one really should take care to remove any ill-placed saplings that may have started to spring up from a long-forgotten acorn. Neglect it now and the result will be immovable in a generation or two!

Happy Easter to you all!